Scientific Literature

Grunion Literature Review

Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Theses, Dissertations

A-D    E-L    M-Q    R-T    V-Z

Allen, L., M. Horn, and D. Pondella (Eds.), 2006. "Ecology of California Marine Fishes". University of California Press.

Allen, L.G., A. M. Findlay, and C. M. Phalen. 2002. Structure and standing stock of the fish assemblages of San Diego Bay, California from 1994 to 1999. Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 101: 49-85.

Allen, L. G., M. H. Horn, F. A. Edmands II, and C. A. Usui. 1983. Structure and seasonal dynamics of the fish assemblage in the Cabrillo Beach area of Los Angeles Harbor, California. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 82: 47-70.

Ambrose, M., N. S. Walker, J. Hawk. 1981. "Captain Mike’s Complete Guide to Grunion Hunting".  Oak Tree Press, La Jolla, CA.

American Trader Trustee Council, 2001. Final restoration plan and environmental assessment for seabirds injured by the American Trader oil spill.  Report of the American Trader Natural Resource Trustee Council, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, California Department of Fish and Game, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Ayres, W. O. 1860. [Descriptions of fishes.] Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 1) 73-77.

Barnhart, P. S. 1918. The spawning of the little-smelt Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres). Calif. Fish & Game 4: 181-182.

Barton, M. 2007. "Bond’s Biology of Fishes", 3rd Edition. Thomson-Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA.

Benz, G. W., R. L. Otting, and A. Case. 1995. Resdescription of Argulus melanostictus (Branchiura: Argulidae), a parasite of California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis: Atherinidae), with notes regarding chemical control of A. melanostictus in a captive host population. Journal of Parasitology 81: 754-761.

Bernardi, G., L. Findley, and A. Rocha-Olivares. 2003. Vicariance and dispersal across Baja California in disjunct marine fish populations.  Evolution 57: 1599-1609.

Borthwick, P. W., J. M. Patrick, Jr., and D. P. Middaugh. 1985. Comparative acute sensitivities of early life stages of Atherinid fishes to chlorpyrifos and thiobencarb. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14: 465-473.

Brandon, J. L. and F. J. Rokop. 1985. "Life Between the Tides: The Natural History of the Common Seashore Live of Southern California". American Southwest Publishing Co., San Diego, CA.

Breder, C. M. and D. E. Rosen. 1966. "Modes of Reproduction in Fishes". Natural History Press, Garden City, NY.

Broadbent, S. L. 1998. Embryo survival of the California grunion, Leuresthes tenius (Osteichthyes: Atherinidae): Individual and seasonal variation in egg pod viability. Master’s Thesis, California State Univ., Long Beach. 50 pp.

Broughton, J. M., V. I. Cannon, and S. Arnold. 2006. The taphonomy of owl-deposited fish remains and the origin of the Homestead Cave ichthyofauna. Journal of Taphonomy 4: 69-95.

Brothers, E. B., C. P. Mathews, R. Lasker. 1976. Daily growth increments in otoliths from larval and adult fishes. Fishery Bulletin 74: 1-8.

Bullock, T. 2005. In praise of “natural history.” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 25: 217-221.

Bullock, T. H., M. H. Hofmann, F. K. Nahm, J. G. New and J. C. Prechtl. 1990. Event-related potentials in the retina and optic tectum of fish. J. Neurophysiology 64: 903-914.

Byrne, R. and J. Avise, 2009. Multiple paternity and extra-group fertilizations in a natural population of California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis), a beach-spawning marine fish. Marine Biology 156: 1681-1690.


Canning, E. U. and A. C. Olson, Jr. 1980. Nosema lepocreadii sp. n., a parasite of Lepocreadium manteri (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae) from the gut of the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis. J. Parasitology 66: 154-159.

Canning, E. U. and A. C. Olson, Jr. 1983. The ultrastructure of Nosema lepocreadii Canning and Olson, 1979 (Microspora, Nosematidae) and its relevance to the generic diagnosis of Nosema Nageli, 1857. J. Parasitology 69: 143-151.

Cannon, R. 1953. "How to Fish the Pacific Coast". Lane Publishing, Menlo Park, CA.

Castro, T., and M. Yoshida. 1974. Los grunones curiosas criaturas del mar. Ciencias Marinas, 1(2):92-95.

Chapman, Todd.  2000. Ultrastructural analysis of early post-hatch otolith development in larval California grunion", Leuresthes tenuis". MS Thesis, California State University, Long Beach. 33 pp.

Clark, F. N. 1925. The life history of Leuresthes tenuis, an atherine fish with tide controlled spawning habits. Calif. Fish & Game 10: 1-51 plus plate.

Clark, F. N. 1926. Conservation of the grunion. Calif. Fish & Game 12(4): 163-166.

Clark, F. N. 1928a. Grunion at La Jolla. Calif. Fish & Game 14(1): 89-90.

Clark, F. N. 1928b. Grunion on Cabrillo Beach. Calif. Fish & Game 14(4): 273-274.

Clark, F. N. 1938. Grunion in southern California. Calif. Fish & Game 24(1): 49-54.

Clark, J. R., J. M. Patrick, Jr., D. P. Middaugh, and J. C. Moore. 1985. Relative sensitivity of six estuarine fishes to carbophenothion, chlorpyrifos, and fenvalerate. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 10: 382-390.

Crabtree, C. B. 1983. Assessment of genetic differentiation within the atherinid genus Leuresthes.  Isozyme Bull. 16: 77.

Crabtree, C. B. 1987. Allozyme evidence for the phylogenetic relationships within the silverside subfamily Atherinopsinae. Copeia 1987: 860-867.

Crane, J.M. 1969. The response of male grunion to a wiggling stick. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 68(3): 191-193.

Conover, D. O. and B. E. Kynard. 1983. Field and laboratory observations of spawning periodicity and behavior of a northern population of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia.  Env. Biology of Fishes 11: 161-171.

Constant, C. L., 1976. The effects of hypersalinity upon the eggs and prolarvae of the Gulf of California grunion, Leuresthes sardina (Jenkins and Evermann, 1888). Univ. Ariz. M.S. thesis, 53 pp.

Darken, R. S., K. L. M. Martin, and M. C. Fisher. 1998. Metabolism during delayed hatching in terrestrial eggs of a marine fish, the grunion Leuresthes tenius. Physiological Zoology 71(4): 400-406.

Daugherty, A. E. 1962. California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis.  Pp. 29-30 in "California Ocean Fisheries Resources to the Year 1960". Calif. Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA.

David, L.R. 1939. Embryonic and early larval stages of the grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, and the sculpin, Scorpaena guttata. Copeia 1939(2): 75-81.

DeMartini, E. E. 1999. Intertidal spawning. In M. H. Horn, K. L. M. Martin, and M. A. Chotkowski (eds.), "Intertidal fishes:  Life in two worlds", pp. 143-164. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 

Dugan, J. E., D. M. Hubbard, M. D. McCrary, and M. O. Pierson. 2003. The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 58: 25-40.

Dyer, B. S. and B. Chernoff. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships among atheriniform fishes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha). Zoological Journal Linnean Society 117: 1-69.


Ehlinger, G. S. and R. A. Tankersley. 2003. Larval hatching in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus: facilitation by environmental cues. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 292: 199-212.

Ehrlich, K. F. 1977. Inhibited hatching success of marine fish eggs by power plant effluent.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 8: 228-229.

Ehrlich, K. F. and D. A. Farris. 1970. Effect of temperature on the number of myomeres in newly hatched grunion (Leuresthes tenuis). Copeia 1970(4): 774-775. 

Ehrlich, K. F. and D. A. Farris. 1971. Some influences of the temperature on the development of the grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Ayers). Calif. Fish & Game.  57(1): 56-68.

Ehrlich, K. F. and D. A. Farris. 1972. Some influences of temperature on the development of the grunion Leuresthes tenuis, an atherine fish. Marine Biology 12: 267-271.

Ehrlich, K.F. and Muszynski, G. 1981. The relationship between temperature-specific yolk utilization and temperature selection of larval grunion. Rapp. P.-V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 178: 312-313.

Ehrlich, K. F. and G. Muszynski. 1982. Effects of temperature on interactions of physiological and behavioral capacities of larval California grunion: adaptations to the planktonic environment. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 60: 223-224.

Eldon, G. A. 1970. Suspected terrestrial deposition of eggs by Neochanna apoda Gunther (Pisces: Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). J. Fish Biology 3: 247-249.

Eschmeyer, W. N., E. S. Herald, and H. Hammann. 1983. "A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Fishes of North America". Peterson Field Guide Series, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 

Fitch, J. E. and R. J. Lavenberg. 1971. "California Marine Food and Game Fishes".  University of California Press, Berkeley.

Fitch, J. E. and R. J. Lavenberg. 1975. "Tidepool and Nearshore Fishes of California".  University of California Press, Berkeley.

Fritzsche, R.A., R.H. Chamberlin, and R.A. Fisher. 1985. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) – California grunion. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 82(11.28). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4, 12 pp.

Gaida, I. H., D. G. Buth, S. D. Matthews, and A. L. Snow. 1998. Allozymic variation in the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae). Gene Familes and Isozymes Bulletin, Sheffield Halam Univ. Press.

Gaida, I. H., D. G. Buth, S. D. Matthews, A. L. Snow, S. B. Luo, and S. Kutsuna. 2003. Allozymic variation and population structure of the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae). Copeia 2003: 594-600.

Gallup, F. N. 1949. Banding recoveries of Tyto alba. Bird-Banding 20: 150.

Garey, W. F. 1962. Cardiac responses of fishes in asphyxic environments. Biological Bulletin 122: 362-368.

Garrett, C. 1974. Ocean Tides. Geoscience Canada 1: 8-14.

Gellert, G. A., S. J. Daugherty, L. Rabiee, M. Mazur, R. E. Merryman. 1994. California’s American Trader oil spill: Effective interagency and public-private collaboration in environmental disaster. J. Environmental Health 46(4): 7- .

Gobalet, K. W. and T. L. Jones. 1995. Prehistoric Native American fisheries of the central California coast. Transactions American Fisheries Society 124: 813-823. 

Goodman, L. R., D. J. Hansen, G. M. Cripe, D. P. Middaugh and J. C. Moore. 1985. New early life-stage toxicity test using the California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) and results with chlorpyrifos. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 10:12-21. 

Goodman, L.R., M. J. Hemmer, D. P. Middaugh, and J. C. Moore. 1992. Effects of fenvalerate on the early life stages of topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 11: 409-414.

Goodson, G. 1988. "Fishes of the Pacific Coast". Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Graham, J. B. 1997. "Air-Breathing Fishes:  Evolution, Diversity, and Adaptation".  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Greenwood, P. H., R. S. Miles, and C. Patterson, eds. 1973. "Interrelationships of Fishes", Academic Press, London. 

Gregory, P. A. 2001. Grunion. Pp. 246-247 in "California’s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report". W. S. Leet, C. M. Dewees, R. Klingbeill, and E. J. Larson (Eds.). California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 592 pp.   

Griem, J. N. and K. L. M. Martin. 2000. Wave action: the environmental trigger for hatching in the California grunion Leuresthes tenius (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae).  Marine Biology 137: 177-181.

Gruber, D., E. H. Ahlstrom, and M. M. Mullin. 1982. Distribution of ichthyoplankton in the Southern California Bight. Calif. Coop. Ocean. Fish. Invest. Rep. 23: 172-179.

Gunzburger, M. S. 2003. Evaluation of the hatching trigger and larval ecology of the salamander Amphiuma means. Herpetologica


Haas, J. W., Jr. 1991. Irwin A. Moon, F. Alton Everest and Will H. Houghton: Early links between the Moody Bible Institute and the American Scientific Affiliation. Perspectives on Science and the Christian Faith: 249-258.

Herald, E. S. 1962. "Living Fishes of the World". Doubleday, New York.

Hickling, C. F. and E. Rutenberg. 1936. The ovary as an indicator of the spawning period in fishes. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK. 1936: 311-317.

Horn, M. H. and K. L. M. Martin. 2006. Intertidal fishes. In: L. Allen, M. Horn, and D. Pondella (Eds.), "Ecology of California Marine Fishes". University of California Press.

Horn, M. H., K. L. M. Martin, and M. A. Chotkowski, eds. 1999. "Intertidal fishes:  Life in Two Worlds", pp. 143-164. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 399 pp. 

Horn, M. H., A. K. Gawlicka, D. P. German, E. A. Logothetis, J. W. Cavanaugh, and K. S. Boyle. 2006. Structure and function of the stomachless digestive system of three related species of New World silverside fishes (Atherinopsidae) representing herbivory, omnivory, and carnivory. Marine Biology 149: 1237-1245.

Hose, J.E. and H. W. Puffer. 1984. Oxygen consumption rates of grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) embryos exposed to the petroleum hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene.  Environmental Research 35: 413-420.

Hubbs, Carl L., 1916. Notes on the marine fishes of California. Univ. Calif. Publications in Zoology 16(13): 153-169.

Hubbs, Clark. 1965. Developmental temperature tolerance and rates of four southern California fishes, Fundulus parvipinnis, Atherinops affinis, Leuresthes tenuis, and Hypsoblennius sp. Calif. Fish & Game 51(2): 113-122.

Idyll, Clarence P. 1969. Grunion, the Fish That Spawns on Land. National Geographic 135(5): 714-723.

Johnson, P. B., K. L. Martin, T. L. Vandergon, R. L. Honeycutt, R. S. Burton, and "A. Fry". 2009. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial Genetic Comparisons Between Northern and Southern Populations of California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis. Copeia 2009: 467-476.

Jordan, D. S. 1926. The habits of the grunion. Science 63: 454.

Jordan, D. S., and Carl L. Hubbs. 1919. A monographic review of the family of Atherinidae or silversides. Leland Stanford Junior Univ. Publ., Univ. Ser. (No.40):1–87, pls. I-XII.

Korringa, P. 1947. Relations between the moon and periodicity in the breeding of marine animals. Ecological Monographs 17: 349-381.

Lawrenz-Miller, S. 1991. Grunion spawning versus beach nourishment:  nursery or burial ground? Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management.  Coastal Zone ’91(3): 2197-2208.

Leet, W. S., C. M. Dewees, R. Klingbeill, and E. J. Larson (Eds.), 2001. "California’s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report". California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 592 pp.   

Loew, E. R., R. A. McAlary, W. N. McFarland. 1997. Ultraviolet visual sensitivity in the larvae of two species of marine atherinid fishes. Pp. 195-210 in: Zooplankton: Sensory Ecology and Physiology (P. H. Lenz, D. K. Hartline, J. Purcell, D. Macmillian, eds.). CRC Press.

Love, R. M. 1996. "Probably More than You Want to Know about the Fishes of the Pacific Coast", 2nd edition. Really Big Press, Santa Barbara. 


MacGinitie, G. E. and N. MacGinitie. 1949. "Natural History of Marine Animals". McGraw-Hill, New York. 473 pp.

MacGregor, J. S. 1976. Ovarian development and fecundity of five species of California Current fishes. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 1976: 181-188.

Martin, J. W. and H. G. Kuck. 1991. Faunal associates of an undescribed species of Chrysaora (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the southern California Bight, with notes on unusual occurrences of other warm water species in the area. Bulletin of Southern California Academy of Sciences 90: 89-101.

Martin, K.L.M. 1999. Ready and waiting: Delayed hatching and extended incubation of anamniotic vertebrate terrestrial eggs. American Zoologist 39: 279-288.

Martin, K. L. M., and R. A. Strathmann. 1999. Aquatic organisms, terrestrial eggs: Early development at the water's edge. American Zoologist 39: 215-217. 

Martin, K. L. M. 2007. Non-Tidal Rhythms. Pp. 467-468 In:  M. Denny and S. Gaines (eds.), "Encyclopedia of Tidepools".  University of California Press. 

Martin, K. L. M. and D. L. Swiderski. 2001. Beach spawning in fishes: Phylogenetic tests of hypotheses. American Zoologist 41: 526-537.

Martin, K., T. Speer-Blank, R. Pommerening, J. Flannery, and K. Carpenter. 2006. Does beach grooming harm grunion eggs? Shore & Beach 74(1): 17-22.

Martin, K., A. Staines, M. Studer, C. Stivers, "C. Moravek", "P. Johnson", and "J. Flannery". 2007. Grunion Greeters in California: Beach Spawning Fish, Coastal Stewardship, Beach Management and Ecotourism. Pp. 73-86 in Lück, M.; Gräupl, A.; Auyong, J.; Miller, M.L. & M.B. Orams (eds.): Proceedings of the 5th International Coastal & Marine Tourism Congress: Balancing Marine Tourism, Development and Sustainability. Auckland, New Zealand: New Zealand Tourism Research Institute.

Martin, K. L. M., C. R. Van Winkle, J. E. Drais, and H. Lakisic. 2004. Beach spawning fishes, terrestrial eggs, and air breathing. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77: 750-759.

Martin, K. L., C. L. Moravek, and J. A. Flannery. 2009. Embryonic staging series for the beach spawning, terrestrially incubating California grunion Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres 1860) with comparisons to other Atherinomorpha.  Journal of Fish Biology 75: 17-38.

Matsumoto, J. K., and K. L. M. Martin. 2008. Lethal and sublethal effects of altered sand salinity on embryos of beach-spawning California Grunion. Copeia 2008: 483-490.

May, Robert C. 1971.  Effects of delayed initial feeding on larvae of the grunion, Leuresthes tenius (Ayers).  U.S. Fish. Bull. 69(2): 411-425.

McCoy, E. A. 1998. Effects of No. 2 fuel on Leuresthes tenuis and comparison to P450 reporter gene system biomarker. MS Thesis, San Diego State University, 150 pp.

McConnaughey, B. H. and E. McConnaughey. 1985. "Audubon Society Nature Guide:  Pacific Coast". Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 633 pp.

McDowall, R. M. 1969. Lunar rhythms in aquatic animals: a general review. Tuatara 17: 133-144.

McDowell, R. M. and S. C. Charteris. 2006. The possible adaptive advantages of terrestrial egg deposition in some fluvial diadromous galaxiid fishes (Teleostei: Galaxiidae). Fish and Fisheries 7: 153-164.

McHugh, J.L. 1954. The influence of light on the number of vertebrae in the grunion Leuresthes tenuis. Copeia 1954(1): 23-25.

Mellinger, J. 2002. "Sexualite et Reproduction des Poissons". CNRS Editions, Paris, FR, 349 pp.

Mercieca, A., and R. C. Miller. 1969. The spawning of the grunion. Pacific Discovery 22(1): 26-27.

Middaugh, D. P. 1981. Reproductive ecology and spawning periodicity of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia (Pisces: Atherinidae). Copeia 1981: 766-776.

Middaugh, D. P. and M. J. Hemmer. 1984. Spawning of the tidewater silverside, Menidia peninsulae (Goode and Bean), in response to tidal and lighting schedules in the laboratory. Estuaries and Coasts 7: 139-148.

Middaugh, D. P. and T. Takita. 1983. Tidal and diurnal spawning cues in the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 8: 97-104.

Middaugh, D. P., P. J. Chapman, M. E. Shelton, C. L. McKenney, Jr., and L. A. Courney. 2002. Effects of fractions from biodegraded Alaska North Slope crude oil on embryonic inland silversides, Menidia beryllina. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 42: 236-243.

Middaugh, D. P., R. G. Domey, and G. I. Scott. 1984. Reproductive rhythmicity of the Atlantic silverside. Trans. American Fisheries Society 113: 472-478.

Middaugh, D. P., L. R. Goodman, and M. J. Hemmer. 1993. Methods for spawning, culturing and conducting toxicity tests with early life stages of estuarine and marine fishes. Pp. 167-192 in: "Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Volume One". P. Calow, Ed. Blackwell Scientific Publishers, Oxford, England. 

Middaugh, D. P., H. W. Kohl, and L. E. Burnett. 1983. Concurrent measurement of intertidal environmental variables and embryo survival for the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, and Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia (Pisces: Atherinidae). Calif. Fish and Game 69: 89-96.

Middaugh, D. P., G. I. Scott, and J. M. Dean. 1981. Reproductive behavior of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia (Pisces, Atherinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 6: 269-276.

Miller, D. J. and R. N. Lea. 1972.  "Guide to the Coastal Marine Fishes of California".  California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 249 pp.

Moffatt, N. M. 1977. Thermal effects on the survival and development of embryonic grunions, Leuresthes sardina and L. tenuis. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, 88 pp.

Moffatt, N. M. and D.A. Thomson. 1975. Taxonomic status of the Gulf grunion (Leuresthes sardina) and its relationship to the California grunion (L. tenuis).  Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 18(4): 75-84.

Moffatt, N. M. and D.A. Thomson. 1978a. Reciprocal hybridization between the California and Gulf of California grunions, Leuresthes tenuis and Leuresthes sardina (Atherinidae). Fish. Bull. 76(2): 476-480.

Moffatt, N. M. and D. A. Thomson. 1978b. Tidal influence on the evolution of egg size in the grunions (Leuresthes, Atherinidae). Environmental Biol. Fish 3: 267-273.

Montgomery, W. L. 2002. Boyd W. Walker 1917-2001. Copeia 2002(4): 1179-1182.

Morgan, S. G. and J. H. Christy. 1994. Plasticity, constraint, and optimality in reproductive timing. Ecology 75: 2185-2203.

Moyle, P. B. and J. J. Cech, Jr. 2000. "Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology", 4th Ed. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.   

Muench, Kevin A. 1977. Behavioral ecology and spawning periodicity of the Gulf of California grunion, Leuresthes sardina. PhD dissertation, Univ. Arizona, 92 pp.

Mullin, M. M. and E. R. Brooks. 1988. Extractable lipofuscin in larval marine fish.  Fishery Bulletin 86: 407-415.

Munro, A. D., A. P. Scott, and T. J. Lam, eds. 1990. "Reproductive Seasonality in Teleosts: Environmental Influences". CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Newton, F., A. Thum, B. Davidson, A. Valkirs, and P. Seligman. 1985. Effects on the growth and survival of eggs and embryos of the California gruion (Leuresthes tenuis) exposed to trace levels of tributylin. Naval Oceans Systems Center, Technical Rep. 1040, San Diego, CA 35 pp.

North, W. J. 1976. "Underwater California". University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.


O’Brien, J. W. and M. S. Oliphant. 2001. Yellowfin croaker. Pp.232-233 in "California’s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report". W. S. Leet, C. M. Dewees, R. Klingbeill, and E. J. Larson (Eds.). California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 592 pp.   

Olson, A.C.  1950. Ground squirrels and horned larks as predators upon grunion eggs. Calif. Fish and Game 36(3): 323-327.

Olson, A.C., Jr. 1955. Parasites of the grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres). PhD Dissertation, Oregon State College, 36 pp.

Olson, A.C., Jr. 1972. Argulus melanostictus and other parasitic crustaceans on the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Osteichthyes: Atherinidae). Journal of Parasitology 58: 1201-1204.

Olson, A. C., Jr. 1975. Metacercaria of Bucephalopsis labiatus (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) in the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis. Journal of Parasitology 61: 50.

Olson, A. C., Jr. 1976. Asymphylodora atherinopsidis (Trematoda: Monorchiidae) from the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, including a redescription. Journal of Parasitology 63: 295-298.

Olson, A. C., Jr. 1978. Lepocreadium manteri sp. N. (Trematoda: Lepocreadiidae) from the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, and its hyperparasitic microsporidan.  Proceedings Helminthological Society Washington 45: 155-157.

Olson, L. J. 1979. Host-parasite associations of the grunions, Leuresthes sardina and Leuresthes tenuis from the Gulf of California. PhD Dissertation, University  Arizona, 97 pp.

Orgeron, M. and S. Elsheimer. 2007. “Something different in science films”: The Moody Institute of Science and the canned missionary movement.  Project MUSE. 

Parenti, L. R. 1993. Relationships of atherinomorph fishes (Teleostei). Bull. Marine Sci. 52: 170-196.

Parenti, L. R. and J. Song. 1996. Phylogenetic significance of the pectoral-pelvic fin association in acanthomorph fishes: a reassessment using comparative neuroanatomy. Pp. 427-444 in: "Interrelationships of Fishes", M. L. J. Stiassny, J. R. Parenti, and G. D. Johnson, Eds. Academic Press, San Diego. 

Paxton, J. R. and W. N. Eschmeyer, eds. 1994. "Encyclopedia of Fishes". Academic Press, San Diego. 

Pearse, A. S. 1953. A new copepod parasite from the grunion. J. Parasitol. 39: 332-333.

Penn, D. and H. J. Brockmann. 1994. Nest-site selection in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Biol. Bull. 187: 373- 384.

Phillips, J. B. 1943. Grunion in Monterey Bay. Calif. Fish & Game 29: 82.

Quinn, N. J. and B. L. Kojis. 1981. The lack of changes in nocturnal estuarine fish assemblages between new and full moon phases in Serpentine Creek, Queensland. Env. Biol. of Fishes 6: 213-218.


Rechnitzer, A. 1952. A wave of fish. Natural History 61(7): 321-325.

Reynolds, W. W. 1973. Orientation responses of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile Gulf grunion (Leuresthes sardina) to artificial gradients. PhD Dissertation, Univ. Arizona, 93 pp.

Reynolds, W. W. and D. A. Thomson. 1974. Ontogenetic change in the response of the Gulf of California grunion, Leuresthes sardina (Jenkins & Evermann), to a salinity gradient. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 14: 211-216.

Reynolds, W. W. and D. A. Thomson. 1974. Responses of young Gulf grunion, Leuresthes sardina, to gradients of temperature, light, turbulence and oxygen. Copeia 1974: 747-758.

Reynolds, W. W., D. A. Thomson, and M. E. Casterlin. 1976. Temperature and salinity tolerances of larval California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres): A comparison with gulf grunion, L. sardina (Jenkins & Evermann). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 24: 73-82. 

Reynolds, W. W., D. A. Thomson, and M. E. Casterlin. 1977. Responses of young California grunion Leuresthes tenuis to gradients of temperature and light.  Copeia 1977(1): 144-149.

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Last updated January 2010